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Artificial Extracellular Matrix

ECM In their natural environment, cells are surrounded by a matrix that enables their survival and determines their adhesion, growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation and function. Therefore, soluble factors that are reversible immobilized in the so called extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as specifically acting binding moieties are of utmost importance. Main components of the ECM are hydrogels and insoluble protein fibres that serve as mechanical scaffold for the cells. Another important structural element are basal membranes, ultrathin separation layers between tissues.

A core activity at FMZ is the preparation and evaluation of biodegradable materials and structures that mimic the ECM as closely as possible in its morphology, biochemical function and hierarchical composition. Modified biopolymers as well as biocompatible functional polymers are used as components for coatings, hydrogels and nanofibrous constructs to achieve this goal. For the generation of hierarchy, methods such as electrospinning and rapid-prototyping techniques are applied.
Another focus area of research are injectable systems for in-situ Tissue Engineering. For this, biocompatible cross-linking chemistries are essential that do not negatively affect cell viability. Examples for this are Michael-Addition or click-chemistry. Finally, the rheological properties of these systems have to be controlled properly.

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Jürgen Groll
Telephone +49(0)931 20173610

Dr. rer. nat. Jörg Teßmar
Telephone +49(0)931 20173720

Scientific Co-workers:
Dr. Eng. Ana Sancho
09 31 - 201 73710

Ph.D. students:
M. Sc. Sarah Bertlein
Multilayered collagen type II hydrogels for articular cartilage regeneration
09 31 - 31 80587

Photo | Research | CV

M. Sc. Julia Blöhbaum
09 31 - 201 73554

M. Eng. Gernot Hochleitner
Melt electrospun thermoplastic biopolymers for the fabrication
09 31 - 201 73590

Dipl.-Ing. Tomasz Jüngst
3D structuring of scaffolds for tissue engineering
09 31 - 201 73590

Pharmacist Angela Rossi
Development of electrospun basement membranes
09 31 - 31 84237

M. Sc. Matthias Ryma
09 31 - 18 80696

M. Sc. Verena Schill
Development of hydrogels for cartilage regeneration
09 31 - 31 80587

Dipl.-Chem. Michael Schmitz
Functionalization of electrospun fibres for artificial extracellular matrices
09 31 - 201 73552

M. Sc. Willi Smolan
Biocompatible polymers for 3D printing
09 31 - 201 73580

Dipl.-Chem. Simone Stichler
Polyglycidol based hydrogels and tissue adhesives
09 31 - 201 73554

Dipl.-Ing. Kai Stuckensen
Cryostructuring of biomimetic cartilage scaffolds
09 31 - 201 73554

Pharmacist Laura Wistlich
Modification of electrospun fiber surfaces with hyaluronic acid derivatives
09 31 - 201 73591


S. Stichler, T. Jüngst, M. Schamel, I. Zilkowski, M. Kuhlmann, T. Böck, T. Blunk, J. Teßmar, J. Groll. Thiol-ene Clickable Poly(glycidol) Hydrogels for Biofabrication. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2016; published online

T. Scheibel, J. Groll, A.R. Boccaccini, T. Zehnder, T. Jüngst, K. Schacht. Zellgewebe aus dem Drucker. Nachrichten aus der Chemie 2016; 64(1): 13-16

M. Veyhl-Wichmann, A. Friedrich, A. Vernaleken, S. Singh, H. Kipp, V. Gorboulev, T. Keller, C. Chintalapati, R. Pipkorn, M. Pastor-Anglada, J. Groll, H. Koepsell. Phosphorylation of RS1 (RSC1A1) Steers Inhibition of Different Exocytotic Pathways for Glucose Transporter SGLT1 and Nucleoside Transporter CNT1 and a RS1 Derived Peptide Inhibits Glucose Absorption. Molecular Pharmacology 2016; 89(1): 118-132

J. Groll, T. Boland, T. Blunk, J.A. Burdick, D.W. Cho, P.D. Dalton, B. Derby, G. Forgacs, Q. Li, V.A. Mironov, L. Moroni, M. Nakamura, W. Shu, S. Takeuchi, G. Vozzi, T.B.F. Woodfield, T. Xu, J.J. Yoo, J. Malda. Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field. Biofabrication 2016, published online

T. Jüngst, W. Smolan, K. Schacht, T. Scheibel, J. Groll. Strategies and Molecular Design Criteria for 3D Printable Hydrogels. Chemical Reviews 2016, published online

J. Groll. Mechanically Strong Microstructured Hydrogels Based on Reactive Star-Shaped Prepolymers. Macromolecular Symposia 2015; 358(1): 148–156

M.V. Beer, K. Hahn, S. Diederichs, M. Fabry, S. Singh, S.J. Spencer, J. Salber, M. Möller, A.G. Shard, J. Groll. Quantifying ligand-cell interactions and determination of the surface concentrations of ligands on hydrogel films: The measurement challenge. Biointerphases 2015; 10(2), published online

F. Topuz, J. Groll, M. Möller. Covalently layer-by-layer assembled homogeneous nanolayers with switchable wettability. Polymer Chemistry 2015; published online

T. Simon-Yarza, A. Rossi, K.H. Heffels, F. Prosper, J. Groll, M.J. Blanco-Prieto. Polymeric electrospun scaffolds: Neuregulin Encapsulation and biocompatibility studies in a model of myocardial ischemia. Tissue Engineering Part A 2015; published online

M. Kuhlmann, O. Reimann, C.P.R. Hackenberger, J. Groll. Cysteine-Functional Polymers via Thiol-ene Conjugation. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2015; 36(5): 472-476

A.M. Greiner, P. Hoffmann, K. Bruellhoff, S. Jungbauer, J.P. Spatz, M. Moeller, R. Kemkemer, J. Groll. Stable Biochemically Micro-patterned Hydrogel Layers Control Specific Cell Adhesion and Allow Long Term Cyclic Tensile Strain Experiments. Macromolecular Bioscience 2014; published online

V.A. Schulte, K. Hahn, A. Dhanasingh, K.H. Heffels, J. Groll. Hydrogel–fibre composites with independent control over cell adhesion to gel and fibres as an integral approach towards a biomimetic artificial ECM Biofabrication 2014; published online.

M.J. Kettel, K. Schäfer, J. Groll, M. Möller. Nanogels with high active ß-cyclodextrin content as physical coating system with sustained release properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2014; 6(4): 2300-2311

D. Projahn,S. Simsekyilmaz, S. Singh, I. Kanzler, B.K. Kramp, M. Langer, A. Burlacu, J. Bernhagen, D. Klee, A. Zernecke, T.M. Hackeng, J. Groll, C. Weber, E.A. Liehn, R.R. Koenen. Controlled intramyocardial release of engineered chemokines by biodegradable hydrogels as a treatment approach of myocardial infarction. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2014, published online

P. Fernández-Robredo, A. Sancho, S. Johnen, S. Recalde, N. Gama, G. Thumann, J. Groll, A. García-Layana. Current Treatment Limitations in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Future Approaches Based on Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering. Journal of Ophthalmology 2014, published online

C. Luschmann, J. Tessmar, S. Schoeberl, O. Strau, W. Luschmann, A. Goepferich. Self-Assembling Colloidal System for the Ocular Administration of Cyclosporine A. Cornea 2013, ahead of print

J. Malda, J. Visser, F.P. Melchels, T. Jüngst, W.E. Hennink, W.J.A. Dhert, J. Groll, D.W. Hutmacher. 25th Anniversary Article: Engineering Hydrogels for Biofabrication. Advanced Materials 2013; 25(36): 5011-5028.

M. Bartneck, K.H. Heffels, M. Bovi, J. Groll, G. Zwadlo-Klarwasser. The role of substrate morphology for the cytokine release profile of immature human primary macrophages. Materials Science and Engineering C 2013; 33(8): 5109-5114.

E. Esser, J.K.V. Tessmar. Preparation of well-defined calcium cross-linked alginate films for the prevention of surgical adhesions.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B 2013; 101B(5): 826–839.

B.M. Holzapfel, J.C. Reichert, J.-T. Schantz, U. Gbureck, L. Rackwitz, U. Nöth, F. Jakob, M. Rudert, J. Groll, D.W. Hutmacher. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2013; 65(4): 581–603.

C. Neuerburg, S. Recknagel, J. Fiedler, J. Groll, M. Moeller, K. Bruellhoff, H. Reichel, A. Ignatius, R.E. Brenner. Ultrathin sP(EO-stat-PO) hydrogel coatings are biocompatible and preserve functionality of surface bound growth factors in vivo. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2013; published online

F. Jakob, R. Ebert, A. Ignatius, T. Matsushita, Y. Watanabe, J. Groll, H. Walles. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis. Maturitas 2013; 75(2): 118-124.

S. Singh, I. Zilkowski, A. Ewald, T. Maurell-Lopez, K. Albrecht, M. Moeller, J. Groll. Mild Oxidation of Thiofunctional Polymers to Cytocompatible and Stimuli-Sensitive Hydrogels and Nanogels. Macromolecular Bioscience 2013; 13(4): 470-482.

M.V. Beer, C. Rech, P. Gasteier, B. Sauerzapfe, J. Salber, A. Ewald, M. Moeller, L. Elling, J. Groll. The Next Step in Biomimetic Material Design: Poly-LacNAc-Mediated Reversible Exposure of Extra Cellular Matrix Components. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2013; 2(2): 306-311.

S. Singh, F. Topuz, K. Hahn, K. Albrecht, J. Groll. Embedding of Active Proteins and Living Cells in Redox-Sensitive Hydrogels and Nanogels through Enzymatic Cross-Linking. Angewandte Chemie 2013, 52(10): 3000–3003.

K. Harrass , R. Krüger, M. Möller, K. Albrecht, J. Groll. Mechanically strong hydrogels with reversible behaviour under cyclic compression with MPa loading. Soft Matter 2013; 9(10): 2869-2877

D. Buenger, F. Topuz, J. Groll. Hydrogels in sensing applications. Progress in Polymer Science 2012; 37(12): 1678–1719

M.J. Kettel, H. Hildebrandt, K. Schaefer, M. Moeller, J. Groll.Tenside-free preparation of nanogels with high functional β‑cyclodextrin content. ACS Nano 2012; 6(9): 8087–8093

M. Kuhlmann, S. Singh, J. Groll. Controlled Ring-opening polymerization of substituted Episulfides for side-chain functional polysulfide-based amphiphiles. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2012; 33(17): 1482−1486

R. Krueger, J. Groll. Fiber reinforced calcium phosphate cements – on the way to degradable load bearing bone substitutes? Biomaterials 2012; 33(25): 5887-5900.

M. Bartneck, K.H. Heffels, Y. Pan, M. Bovi, G. Zwadlo-Klarwasser, J. Groll. Inducing healing-like human primary macrophage phenotypes by 3D hydrogel coated nanofibres, Biomaterials 2012; 33(16):4136-4146.

F. Topuz, A. Henke, W. Richtering, J. Groll. Magnesium ions and alginate do form hydrogels: a rheological study, Soft Matter 2012; 8(18): 4877-4881.

F. Rudnitzki, M. Bever, R. Rahmanzadeh, K. Brieger, E. Endl, J. Groll, G. Huttmann. Bleaching of plasmon-resonance absorption of gold nanorods decreases efficiency of cell destruction, Journal of Biomedical Optics 2012; 17(5): 058003.

M.V. Beer, C. Rech, S. Diederichs, K. Hahn, K. Bruellhoff, M. Moeller, L. Elling, J. Groll. A hydrogel-based versatile screening platform for specific biomolecular recognition in a well plate format, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2012; 403(2): 517-526.

F. Jakob, R. Ebert, M. Rudert, U. Noeth, H. Walles, D. Docheva, M. Schieker, L. Meinel, J. Groll. In situ guided tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal diseases and aging Implementing pathology into tailored tissue engineering strategies, Cell and Tissue Research 2012; 347(3): 725-735.

J. Groll, K. Mullen, A. Walther. Macromolekulare Chemie 2011, Nachrichten aus der Chemie 2012; 60(3): 332-345.

J. Geistlinger, W. Du, J. Groll, F. Liu, J. Hoegel, K.J. Foehrl, A. Pasquarelli, M. Schneider: P2RX7 genotype association in severe sepsis identified by a novel multi-individual array for rapid screening and replication of risk SNPs. Clinica Chimica Acta 2012; 413(1-2): 39-47.

A. Dhanasingh, J. Groll: Polysaccharide based covalently linked multi-membrane hydrogels. Soft matter 2012; 8(5): 1643-1647.

J. Groll. Control of nanofibre surface chemistry for biomaterials and tissue engineering. Tissue Eng A, 17(3-4), 545-545 (2011)

Y. Hijikata, S. Horike, D. Tanaka, J. Groll, M. Mizuno, J. Kim, M. Takatade, S. Kitagawa: Differences of crystal structure and dynamics between a soft porous nanocrystal and a bulk crystal. Chem Commun 2011, 47, 7632-7634.

G. Boehm, Y. Ushakova, H.P. Alizai, T. Braunschweig, C. Lente, K.-H. Heffels, J. Groll, U.P. Neumann, K. Junge: Biocompatibility of PLGA / sP(EO-stat-PO)-coated mesh surfaces under constant shearing stress. European Surgical Research 2011, 47, 118-129.

S. Sinn, M. Eichler, L. Müller, D. Bünger, J. Groll, F. K. Gehring, F. Rupp, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, G. Ziemer, H. P. Wendel: NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) coatings on gold sensors - a QCM study of hemocompatibility. Sensors 2011, 11(5), 5253-5269.

D. Grafahrend, K.-H. Heffels, M.V. Beer, P. Gasteier, M. Moeller, G. Boehm, P.D. Dalton, J. Groll: Degradable polyester scaffolds with controlled surface chemistry combining minimal protein adsorption with specific bioactivation. Nature Materials 2011, 10, 67-73.

R. Luxenhofer, J. Groll: Macromolekulare Chemie 2010. Nachrichten aus der Chemie 2011, 59(3), 324-334.

J. Fiedler, J. Groll, E. Engelhardt, P. Gasteier, C. Dahmen, H. Kessler, M. Moeller, R. E. Brenner: NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) surface coatings preserve biochemical properties of RGD peptides. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2011, 27(1), 139-145.

K. Albrecht, M. Moeller, J. Groll: Nano- and microgels through addition reactions of functional oligomers and polymers. Advances in Polymer Science 2011, 234, 65-93.

K. Bruellhoff, J. Fiedler, M. Moeller, J. Groll, R. E. Brenner: Surface coating strategies to prevent biofilm formation on implant surfaces. International Journal of Artificial Organs 2010, 33(9), 646-653.
J. Groll, M. Moeller: Star Polymer Surface Passivation for Single Molecule Detection. Methods in Enzymology 2010, 472, 1-18.

K. Klinkhammer, J. Bockelmann, C. Simitzis, G. A. Brook, D. Grafahrend, J. Groll, M. Möller, J. Mey, D. Klee: Functionalization of electrospun fibers of poly(ε-caprolactone) with star shaped NCO-poly(ethylene glycol)-stat-poly(propylene glycol) for neuronal cell guidance. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010, 21(9), 2637-2651.

D. Grafahrend, K.-H. Heffels, M. Möller, D. Klee, J. Groll: Electrospun, Biofunctionalized Fibers as Tailored in vitro Substrates for Keratinocyte Cell Culture. Macromolecular Bioscience 2010, 10(9), 1022-1027.

K. Gavenis, U. Schneider, J. Groll, B. Schmidt-Rohlfing: BMP-7-loaded PGLA microspheres as a new delivery system for the cultivation of human chondrocytes in a collagen type I gel: the common nude mouse model. International Journal of Artificial Organs 2010, 33(1), 45-53.

D. Tanaka, A. Henke, K. Albrecht, M. Moeller, K. Nakagawa, S. Kitagawa, J. Groll: Rapid Preparation of Flexible Porous Coordination Polymer Nanocrystals with Accelerated Guest Adsorption Kinetics. Nature Chemistry 2010, 2, 410-416.

M. Bartneck, H. A. Keul, G. Zwadlo-Klarwasser, J. Groll: Phagocytosis Independent Extracellular Nanoparticle Clearance by Human Immune Cells. NanoLetters 2010, 10, 59-63.

A. Dhanasingh, J. Salber, M. Moeller, J. Groll: Hydrophilic Prepolymer Cross-Linkers for Tailored Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels. Soft Matter 2010, 6, 618-629.

W. Ahmed, T. Wolfram, A. Goldyn, K. Bruellhoff, B. A. Rioja, M. Möller, J. P. Spatz, T. A. Saifa, J. Groll, R. Kemkemer: Myoblast morphology and organization on biochemically micropatterned hydrogel coatings under cyclic mechanical strain. Biomaterials 2010, 31(2), 250-258.

J. Groll, J. Fiedler, K. Bruellhoff, M. Moeller, R. E. Brenner: Novel surface coatings modulating eukaryotic cell adhesion and preventing implant infection. International Journal of Artificial Organs 2009; 32, 655-662.

J. Groll, S. Singh, K. Albrecht, M. Moeller: Biocompatible and Degradable Nanogels via Oxidation Reactions of Synthetic Thiomers in Inverse Miniemulsion. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2009; 47(20): 5543-5549.

A. Reska, P. Gasteier, K. Albrecht, P. Schulte, A. Offenhäusser, M. Moeller, J. Groll: Ultrathin coatings with reactivity change by time enable functional in vitro networks of insect neurons. Advanced Materials 2008, 20, 2751-2755.

P. D. Dalton, C. Hostert, K. Albrecht, M. Moeller, J. Groll*: Structure and Properties of Urea Crosslinked Star Poly(ethylene oxide-stat-propylene oxide) Hydrogels. Macromolecular Bioscience 2008, 8, 923-931.

P. D. Dalton, N. Joergensen, J. Groll, M. Moeller: Patterned Melt Electrospun Substrates for Tissue Engineering. Biomedical Materials 2008, 3, 034109 (11pp).

K. Albrecht, A. Mourran, X. Zhu, T. Markkula, J. Groll, U. Beginn, W. H. de Jeu, M. Moeller: Thin Film Morphologies of Block Copolymers Complexed with Wedge-Shaped Liquid Crystalline Amphiphilic Molecules. Macromolecules 2008, 41(5), 1728-1738.

J. Hoffmann, A. Paul, M. Harwardt, J. Groll, T. Reeswinkel, D. Klee, M. Moeller, H. Fischer, T. Walker, G. Ziemer, H. P. Wendel: Immobilized DNA Aptamers Used as Potent Attractors for Porcine Endothelial Precursor Cells. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A 2008, 84A, 614-621.

J. Salber, S. Gräter, M. Harwardt, M. Hofmann, D. Klee, J. Dujic, H. Jinghuan, J. Ding, S. Kippenberger, A. Bernd, J. Groll, J. P. Spatz, M. Möller: Influence of Different ECM Mimetic Peptide Sequences Embedded in a Nonfouling Environment on the Specific Adhesion of Human Skin Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts on Deformable Substrates. Small 2007, 3(6), 1023-1031.

P. Gasteier, A. Reska, P. Schulte, J. Salber, A. Offenhäusser, M. Moeller, J. Groll: Surface grafting of PEO-based star shaped molecules for bioanalytical and biomedical applications. Macromolecular Bioscience 2007, 7, 1010-1023.

J. Groll, H. Rong, P. Greiwe, M. Flach: Star performers: six-armed prepolymers for biosensing coatings. European Coating Journal 2007, 5, 162-167.

M. C. Lensen, P. Mela, A. Mourran, J. Groll, J. Heuts, H. Rong, M. Möller: Micro- and Nanopatterned Star Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) Materials Prepared by UV-Based Imprint Lithography. Langmuir 2007, 23(14), 7841-7846.

C.D. Heyes, J. Groll, M. Möller, G.U. Nienhaus: Synthesis, patterning and applications of star shaped poly (ethylene glycol) biofunctionalized surfaces. Molecular Biosystems 2007, 6, 419-430.

A. Offenhäusser, S. Böcker-Meffert, T. Decker, R. Helpenstein, P. Gasteier, J. Groll, M. Möller, A. Reska, S. Schäfer, P. Schulte, A. Vogt: Microcontact Printing of Proteins for Neuronal Cell Guidance. Soft Matter 2007, 3, 290-298.

M. Möller, J. Groll: Kontrolle der Wechselwirkungen von Flächen mit der Biosphäre. Labor&More 2006, 3(4), 32-37.

J. Groll, K. Albrecht, P. Gasteier, S. Riethmüller, U. Ziener, M. Möller: Nanostructured Ordering of Fluorescent Markers and Single Proteins on Substrates. ChemBioChem 2005, 6, 1782-1787.

T. Ameringer, M. Hinz, C. Mourran, H. Seliger, J. Groll*, M. Moeller: Ultrathin Functional Star PEG Coatings for DNA Microarrays. Biomacromolecules 2005, 6, 1819-1823.

J. Groll, J. Fiedler, E. Engelhard, T. Ameringer, S. Tugulu, H.-A. Klok, R.E. Brenner, M. Möller: A Novel Star PEG derived Surface Coating for Specific Cell Adhesion. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A 2005, 74A, 607-617.

J. Groll, Z. Ademovic, T. Ameringer, D. Klee, M. Möller: A Comparison of Coatings from Reactive Star Shaped PEG-stat-PPG Prepolymers and Linear PEG for Biological and Medical Applications. Biomacromolecules 2005, 6, 956-962.

J. Groll, W. Haubensak, T. Ameringer, M. Möller: Ultrathin Coatings from Isocyanate Terminated Star PEG Prepolymers: Patterning of Proteins on the Layers. Langmuir 2005, 21, 3076-3083.

J. Groll, T. Ameringer, J.P. Spatz, M. Möller: Ultrathin Coatings from Isocyanate Terminated Star PEG Prepolymers: Layer Formation and Characterization. Langmuir 2005, 21, 1991-1999.

E.V. Amirgoulova, J. Groll, C.D. Heyes, T. Ameringer, C. Röcker, Martin Möller, G.U. Nienhaus: Biofunctionalized polymer surfaces exhibiting minimal interaction towards immobilized proteins. ChemPhysChem 2004, 5, 552-555.

J. Groll, E. Amirgoulova, T. Ameringer, C.D. Heyes, C. Röcker, G.U. Nienhaus, M. Möller: Biofunctionalized, Ultrathin Coatings of Crosslinked Star-shaped Poly(ethylene oxide) allow reversible folding of immobilized proteins. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 4234.

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